Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture 9 - 1998


Horticultural Therapy at Fairhaven School
Christine Wotowiec

Fairhaven is a special education school in Alexan­cfria, Egypt. H serves more than 100 students, ages 5 through young adult. The school's main mission is to serve the mentally retarded. Special education in Egypt has only begun to develop within the last 10 to 15 years. Thus, Fairhaven is developing a compre­hensive curriculum to include all degrees of disabili­ties. 

Horticultural Therapy in a Therapeutic Farm Community
Cathy Clopton, BS

Hopewell lnn is a 333-acre therapeutic farm com­munity founded in Ohio in 1995. Mental health services are offered to adults with serious mental ill­nesses. The community includes psychiatric nurses, social workers, farmers, children, work team leaders, and kitchen staff. 

The program is designed to train people in the skills of daily living, work, and social interaction so that they can achieve the highest level of independence possible. Hopewell serves adults with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. The program is best suited for people who are in need of a stuctured envi­ronment and schedule, but do not require the inten­sity of supervision characteristic of an inpatient set­ting.

From a Few Plants to Thousands
Betsy Frazer, BS

Our vision for the adult clients at St. Mark's Inc. Lakeview Center in Charlotte, North Carolina, began in 1993 when I suggested "just a few plants." Convincing some of the area supervisors that caring for and nurturing plants could help individuals reach mo­tor skill goals was tile first challenge. 

Grief Gardening
Elan Marie Miavitz, BS

In the twentieth century, grieving in our society has been confined to the home, with time to recover after one's loss often not allowed. Our society wants fast answers, relief, and quick solutions, and_we get the impression that we do not have time to grieve (Smith, 1995). Employers, friends, and family often seem to expect one to resume normal lie immedi­ately after the funeral.

Psychiatric Case Studies
Patricia Sporn, MA, Bernice Salamon, HTT, Katherine Stirtz, BS, and Kathleen Neer, HTR


Physical Disability Case Studies
Kelly Jane Conrad, HTR, Teresia Hazen, HTR, MEd, QMHP, Karin Fleming, HTR, Denise Odell Alford, BS, OTR, Maxine Jewel Kaplan, MA, HTM, Janet Szofran, BS, HTR, and Maria Gabaldo, MEd, HTR, OTR


Geriatric Case Studies
Alee Karpf, MS, HTR, and Jennifer Fishman, CTRS, HTT


Palliative Care Case Studies
Charles A. Sourby, MSEd


Business Plan Development: A Horticultural Therapy Consulting Service
Laurie W. DeMarco, PhD and Diane Relf, PhD, HTM

Starting a new consulting practice is both an exciting and intimidating prospect. A person entertaining the idea of starting a new business in horticultural therapy consulting does not need to be fearful o the process. A successful business is the result of a good business plan, honest evaluation, and a great amount of self-motivation. To increase the likelihood of business success, each of the following issues must be addressed. 

Enabling the Japanese Garden
Elizabeth R. Messer, MLA, HTM

This paper will explore the relationship between traditional garden design and enabling garden design in Japan. Following a brief introduction to the influences and development of the traditional Japanese garden, the primary disparities between it and the more recent enabling garden will be discussed. Next, the Towa Enabling Garden will be introduced, and its use of traditional imagery and styles will be ex­amined. Finally, some general conclusions on gar­den styles will be drawn, with some recommenda­tions for the incorporation of traditional styles into the modern design of enabling gardens. 

Achieving Spirtual Balance within the Spatial Landscapes of a Healing Garden
Virginia T. Burt, BLA

There are four phases of emotional healing that can be encouraged within healing gardens: The Journey, Sensory Awakening, Self Awareness, and Spiritual Attunement (Barnes, I 996). This paper concentrates on the fourth phase, and in the spiritual self. 

Effect of Landscape on Psychological and Physical Responses
Chun-Yen Chang, PhD and Jia-Lin Perng

Do people really benefit from beautiful landscapes? The effect of landscape on humans is regarded as very positive, but few studies have tried to statistically test the benefits of that relationship. 

Effects of Interior Plants on Social Behaviors and Psychological Disorders of Psychiatric Patients in a Hospital Ward
Sung-Hye Chung and Woo-Kyun Sim

This study was conducted to examine the influ­ence of interior plants on social behaviors and psy­chological disorders of psychiatric patients. The introduction of plants was expected to enhance social behavior and emotional stability, lower depression and anxiety, and increase social support among psychiat­ric patients. In essence, to show evidence of thera­peutic effects of plantscaping, plants were installed in a psychiatric ward, and we hypothesized that the presence of plants would increase patient social be­havior, emotional stability and social support, while reducing depression and anxiety. 

A Survey of Pennsylvania Long-Term Care Facilities: Challenges and Incentives to the Application of Horticultural Therapy in Geriatrics
Johanna G. Leos, MAg

Long-term care for the elderly should include fos­tering resident independence through facility admin­istration practice. This lessens helplessness, which lies at the core of depression, a major factor of declin­ing health in the elderly (Yu, 1997). The loss of pur­pose in life has many contributing factors, not age alone (Blazer, Service, et al, 1989).