Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture 1 - 1986


Nonverbal Aspects of Horticultural Therapy
Allen Jack Autry 

A comparison of representative source documents relating to horti­cultural therapy and to nonverbal behavior and communication ·reveals that there are seven significant variables common to both disciplines. These variables, which have been found to exist in a variety of tasks common in a horticultural therapy program, are hypothesized to bring about construc­tive change in the behavior of a client, through nonverbal interaction with the horticultural therapist and/or with the environment. 

Developing Links Between Horticultural Therapy and Aging
David Houseman 

The older population has been increasing at a far more rapid rate than the rest of the population for most of this century .... In 1982, over one-fifth of the American population was 55 years or over, an estimated 48.9 million persons .... By the year 2050, one out of three persons is expected to be over 55 years of age and one out of four will be over age 65 (U.S. Senate Special Committee on Aging, 1984). 

I don't know what on earth I would do if I didn't have this garden thing to write about, to help people with, to talk to garden clubs. I don't know how I could feel that I was doing anything that made it necessary for me to stay alive (Stout, 1976).

Understanding and Overcoming Burnout
Ricky Smith 

As service providers horticultural therapists and instructors should be aware of occupational stressors and burnout and their impact on client management, service provision, worker satisfaction and health. Burnout is not simply an individual's inability to cope with a difficult work situation. It is a complex problem caused by societal, organizational, professional and individual factors. Intervention strategies need to occur at all levels to overcome the causes rather than merely managing the stress symptoms. ft is not for the individual alone to overcome burnout, but is an industrial issue to be addressed by organizations and professional association. 

Apple Picking Productivity of Developmentally Disabled Adults
Richard H. Mattson, HTM, Lynn Ellen Doxon, HTR, PhD Candidate, Stephen Moore

Productivity records were compared for 30 developmentally disabled adults who picked apples over a 3-week period in a commercial-sized orchard. Four adults demonstrated sufficient work skills to be advanced from prevocational to work readiness training. Seven adults, with more than 67% attendance, picked at 40% of norm and earned $3.36/hour, as compared to earning $1.13/hour in prevocational work activities at an adult training center. 

Evaluation of Arthritis using the Horticulture Hand Capacities Test
Mark J. Gallagher, HTR, Richard H. Mattson, HTM

The hand performances of elderly arthritic and nonarthritic people were compared using the Horticultural Hand Capacities Test (HHCT) and the Physical Capacities Evaluation of Hand Skill Test (PCE). Each horticultural task on the HHCT was highly correlated with a similar task on the PCE. The HHCT is useful in diagnosing arthritic hand disabilities and is economically feasible in individualized physical rehabilitation programs. 

Group Cohesiveness is Enhance as Children Engage in Plant Stimulated Discovery Activities
Debra Elaine Bunn, HTM

Activities in horticulture have the potential to create a therapeutic milieu that contributes to the physical, social, mental and emotional needs of the individual (Lewis, 1973). Horticultural activities can permit a high degree of interaction and serve as a tool for the development of relationships (Mccandliss, 1971 ). Activity in horticulture elicits confidence and a sense of achievement (Burlingame, 1960), and encourages responsibility that provides for an opportunity to reverse dependency needs (Brooks and Oppenheim, 1973). Plant-stimulated activity seems to promote behavioral responses and social interactions (Lewis, 1973), as well as provide an opportunity for learning through discovery (Montessori, 1964). Additional benefits may be associated with horticultural activities, such as vocational rehabilitation, facilitation of recovery from an illness, and the prevention of illness by the promotion of wellness (Watson and Burlingame, 1960).